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3d nand vs dram

3d nand vs dram -NAND shortage: A combination of high demand and a trend toward manufacturing denser 3D NAND technology (also known as vertical NAND) resulted in a NAND shortage that began in 2016. NAND cell arrays store 1, 2, 3, or 4 bits of data. Essentially, he says, leveraging legacy front-end tools, as well as processing multiple 3D NAND is a revolutionary storage technology that allows 64GB of storage to fit in a package smaller than your fingernail. Intel demonstrated that at the Intel Developer Forum (IDF) last August and several times since then. The fact is that the cost of fine pattern lithography, the number of electrons that could be stored in the floating gate and the disturb effects from cell proximity made further Up until now, monolithic 3D approaches have been primarily under development for non-volatile memory technologies like 3D NAND. It is non-volatile, unlike DRAM (which can be protected with capacitors or batteries), and like NAND flash. Photo Credit: hardwareluxx. As for 3D NAND, seems like it should be <40nm - ≥20nm or ≥40nm geometry: Why 3D NAND is Stuck at 40nm – The Memory Guy The 1TB WD Blue 3D NAND SSD (Price Check) is a low-profile 2. But one company, MonolithIC 3D, has targeted 3D DRAM as an application for it’s patented processes, which, according to CEO and Founder, Zvi Or-Bach, is another way to continue Moore’s Law while controlling the costs that are skyrocketing in traditional 2D CMOS scaling. 8 nm 2) or even to 64L 3D NAND (88. This is If it's more costly than NAND flash, it needs to be faster than NAND flash. To overcome these hurdles, the WD Blue 3D NAND SATA SSD employs three storage layers: Volatile cache — DDR DRAM cache Tiered Caching structure — A non-volatile flash write cache Mass storage — TLC NAND flash The tiered caching structure is a pool of X1 blocks which are used as write cache to Floating gate technology, Hady said, will also enable its 3D NAND flash memory to be extensible to five bits per cell. com 3D NAND, unlike typical planar NAND, added another dimension, Z, which allowed the bits to be stored vertically. Samsung 136-layer V-NAND 3-bit MLC. This is thinner than the regular 9. nand 2014 CAPEX : US$9. Desktops and laptops these days will usually come with 8 or 16GB of DRAM, and cell phones around 2GB. NOR vs. ADATA Technology, a leading manufacturer of high-performance DRAM modules, and mobile accessories today launched the ADATA Ultimate SU630 2. Samsung's flash memory is fabricated using an innovative 3D V-NAND architecture, which stacks 32 cell layers on top of one another. Transcend launched a new solid-state drive that uses vertically stacked 3D NAND Flash technology. 2D Flash Cell Design 44 Substrate S D Charge Trap Management noted that 3D NAND capacity continues to be added in its Pyeongtaek campus, while we were somewhat surprised at the new capacity additions Samsung has planned on the DRAM end (2nd floor 3D NAND embodies the new vertical scaling direction for flash memory. The NAND structure is considerably more compact. only 1TB for S11)). We talk SLC, MLC, and TLC NAND, discuss which is "best" (and if there is a "best" Dynamic Random-Access Memory (DRAM) is very durable and fast but not able to retain data. It may not be a complete replacement for DRAM, but it can certainly help lower the TCO of an in-memory design. Key features of the report 2019-2025 market forecast in units and revenue (US$) for four types of equipment used for manufacturing 3D-NAND wafers, namely: Buy Crucial MX500 500GB 3D NAND SATA 2. It features intelligent SLC caching and a DRAM cache buffer to boost read/write performance even further. " Intel's SVP/GM for the NVMe Solutions Group, Rob Crooke, chimed in: "We've reached a point in the NAND development partnership where it is the right time for the companies to Samsung and Toshiba NAND chips can achieve similar power efficiency but lower I/O speeds, so this is an area where the YMTC solution shines. With support for SLC Caching, DRAM Cache Buffer, and auto-copy technology, it provides higher efficiency and longer lifespan. When Intel compared its standard NAND flash based PCIe SSD to a similar SSD based on 3D XPoint memory, the XPoint model ran 7-8 times faster, which is very impressive. 2D vs 3D NAND TunOx Block Ox Storage Channel Control Gate 2D NAND 3D NAND Channel The DRAM market is in severe shortage and the NAND market is showing signs of stabilisation in the near-term. 3D NAND / SSD-related commentary, 5. This However, 3D XPoint has significantly lower latency than NAND. Caching with built-in dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) allows storing small writes and flushing them to the SSD as one big write, thus speeding up read/write performance and preventing write amplification. Read More Comparing the two drives, SanDisk SSD Plus is just an entry level SSD (that's why it has no TBW information), SanDisk Ultra 3D SSD is better. DRAM •! Time/TTM (OS and You heard right: The new 3D Xpoint memory will perform 1,001 times faster and last 1,001 times longer than today's NAND memory. In fact, I don't want to. 2D or Planar NAND has only one layer of memory cells, whereas 3D NAND layers cells on top of each other in a stacked manner. ” Financial summary: Gross margin – 32. 98 Get the deal Portfolio Additions Extend 3D NAND Leadership. A Lesson From Planar NAND . NAND Flash Density For any given lithography process, the density of the NAND Flash memory array will always be higher than NOR Flash. In 2013, Samsung reached a breakthrough by mass producing V-NAND memory, which vertically stacks the cells with 3D Charge Trap Flash structures, which drastically increases density 3D-NAND Position in Next Technology Waves – my view Big DataAI Deep Learning Cloud Human Internet NAND Flash Standardizatio n Control IoT Sensor SSD HDD 7/08/2016 @ 2016 Satoru Araki, all right reserved 26 LinkedIn Ref Page 3D-NAND has Promising Future if; § Keep capacity scalability with § Cost competitiveness, Reliability 27. DRAM: Short-Term Memory. We’ve heard about it for a while, at least in terms of what the concept is. Similar to our DRAM example, DoE statistical variation studies can be run in SEMulator3D that model 3D NAND multi-tier alignment errors, and enable the possibility of taking corrective action without the time The alternative to this approach is to adopt 3D NAND, also called V-NAND (Vertical NAND), and stand the entire die stack on its head. 7 It's still NAND memory. ” This video explores an old topic of ours and discusses NAND Flash for SSDs. 3D/Vertical NAND vs. Dynamic random-access memory is a type of random-access memory that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor within an integrated circuit. 9 per cent; Adjusted free cash flow – $174m – compared to year-ago $101m; Total liquidity – $11. Does anyone know? The specification sheet that is published on the website gives no indication one way or the ALD/ALE Process in Commercially Available Memory Devices 2018 saw memory product manufacturers Samsung, Hynix, Toshiba and Micron introducing 64- or 72- stacked layer 3D-NAND devices, and move into 1x generation DRAM devices. DRAM dynamics Today’s systems integrate processors, graphics, as well as memory and storage, are often referred to as the memory/storage hierarchy. The MX500 uses Microns own TLC NAND, the new 64-layer vertical stacked version with a bit of DRAM cache and. Dynamic random-access memory (dynamic RAM or DRAM) is a type of random-access semiconductor memory that stores each bit of data in a memory cell consisting of a tiny capacitor and a transistor, both typically based on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) technology. And while 3D XPoint has more endurance than NAND flash, it is not nearly infinite like DRAM. NOR flash memory stores Planar (2D) NAND 3D NAND Mielke 2006 JEDEC 2010 (no characterization) x x. By Gordon Mah Ung MX500 has 5 years warranty vs 3 years from WD or Sandisk on similar priced SSDs. But when you power off, so strip the memory. Micron revealed plans to transition from planar NAND flash to 3D NAND flash, with volume production targeted for fiscal 2015 with planar NAND scaling slowing down and reaching its limits. S. The NAND operator produces a FALSE value only if both values of its two inputs are TRUE. The FBGA part number on the NAND chips is NW838. Also called planar because it sits on a plane. NAND has better endurance than NOR (reportedly up to 10 times) and faster write and erase speeds thanks to the way data is organised in blocks. Memory uses DRAM (dynamic random access memory) to perform its functions. 95 bn at quarter end vs $2. Article Micron invests in NAND, SATA SSDs Both 3D NAND and 3D XPoint from a PCIe connection are still much, much slower than DRAM; microseconds vs nanoseconds. It's early days, but 3D V-NAND opens the path to much higher SSD capacity, meaning a basic drive could pack 8TB by 2017. It is slower than DRAM, and faster than NAND flash. Whether used as storage or a boot drive, it’s a great upgrade choice! NAND is the most popular type of flash storage memory for USB flash drives, memory cards, and SSDs. Announcing Intel® SSD D5-P5316 3D NAND. NAND-based storage, such as traditional solid state drives (SSDs), offers greater capacity and a lower cost relative to DRAM, but it can’t offer the same levels of performance. DRAM is a volatile memory, meaning it stores memory when a device is on. But because the SSD DRAM is the memory used to store code for algorithms, processes, etc. If DRAM loses its power source, for any reason, the data it was processing is lost and needs to be retrieved from disk storage. Drive makers are now layering more and more stacks on top of each other which leads to denser, more spacious, and less expensive drives. NVMe- The ever-expanding need for data storage capacity and speed in both commercial and industrial applications has caused a growing list of options for memory. The good news is continued cost reduction, smaller die sizes and more capacity. 2 form factor with 3. • 3D XPoint is a complementary technology to DRAM and 3D NAND for storage class memory applications. Details are few but a deal could be announced next Monday. Utilizing Samsung’s unique ‘channel hole etching’ technology, the new V-NAND adds around 40-percent more cells to the previous 9x-layer single-stack structure. Its DRAM cache comes at 1GB, 2GB and 4GB respectively. 3D vs. DRAM . In the prior post we discussed the need to go vertically into the body of the die, since NAND flash can not be scaled much farther in length and width on the die’s surface. 3D Xpoint is a non-volatile memory type, which can offer significantly better 1 3D NAND updates and developments. 3D NAND is about 30% cheaper than planar NAND — This claim is partially right, but mostly wrong. 3D NAND vs. V-NAND, or 3D V-NAND is the latest technology in the flash memory world. 5″ drive bays, even in thin laptops. This has been tough on Intel because, with 3D XPoint memory being a new technology, the cost to manufacture it is higher than the price at which it sells. However, you may find the NAND cache nVIMs faster than DRAM with SATA. 5x cost reduction vs. The Ace A55's auto-copy technology allows automatic copy operations from the SLC cache to the 3D NAND Flash inside the NAND without using the controller or DDR. State of 3D NAND Flash • Planar NAND flash scaled to its practical limits years ago • Virtually all consumer NAND flash is 3D NAND – Micron and Intel 96L 128L and 144L (11% + 10% market share) – Hynix 96L v5 128L v6 (11%) – Samsung 92L V-NAND 5 128LV-NAND 6 (33%) – WD and Kioxia 96L BiCS4 112LBiCS5 (15% + 19%) – YMTC 64L 128L • nand flash capex capex: dram vs. This is not relevant to the DRAM v. 1MB/s. The image below shows a pair of 128Gb 3D Xpoint dies; Intel claims that they’re smaller than competing DRAM designs and that the technology can be scaled to match NAND’s density in a similar It touches upon NAND flash, 2D NAND vs 3D NAND, and SLC vs MLC vs TLC vs QLC. It may be contrasted with the NOR operator, which only produces a TRUE value if both inputs are FALSE. However, keep in mind that 3D XPoint was just announced about a month ago while NAND flash was announced twenty years ago. I do not suggest using it for an OS drive. Intel understands this very well. NAND Bit Density • The transition from 2D NAND to 3D is enabling the continuation in bit density scaling by using the third dimension. 3D XPoint isn't electron based, it's material based. –DRAM manages your data, requires power (volatile) –NAND stores your data, does not require power (non-volatile) • Memory is in just about all electronics –Enterprise (server & data center), PC, and Mobile make up 80+% of DRAM and NAND demand. 3D XPoint memory is already being produced at the Intel / Micron Flash Technology plant at Lehi P. The other is NOR flash. The companies aren't diving into specifics yet surrounding the materials used in 3D XPoint, but the physics are fundamentally With immediate effect, Micron will cease development of 3D XPoint™ and shift resources to focus on accelerating market introduction of CXL-enabled memory products. 2 Bn with 15%yoy , mostly reserved for 3D-NAND in the future. Samsung and SK Hynix face an oversupply and increased competition, which, reportedly, should result in a NAND price drop . Thanks to the bump in interest in 3D NAND technology, flash memory vendors are getting into the market. Want to see how a structure is made? This video shows film stack deposition, channel horizontal nanowires and 3D stacked horizontal nanowires. But DRAM is 100 times faster than NAND flash. 0 technologies make for a better experience, delivering The newest development with the Crucial MX300 SSD is that it employs the use of Micron’s new 3D TLC NAND. 5 Inch Internal SSD (ASU635SS-240GQ-R) Lexar NS100 2. ) Pricing trends / expectations in NAND Flash vs. 1Q17 NAND Flash Revenue Dipped Only 0. 3D NAND uses a larger cell size than the most recent planar NAND flash generations. Based on the above points, DRAM is usually used in memory banks and only a few SSDs adopt it. NAND is the memory used to store data for pictures, music, etc. Samsung’s sixth-generation V-NAND features the industry’s fastest data transfer rate, capitalizing on the company’s distinct manufacturing edge that is taking 3D memory to new heights. As a secondary drive (e. ) progression of 3D NAND; 96-Layer progress; 3. A good chunk of DRAM, yes. Building up on the 860 series, the QVO comes with the same MJX controller that is paired with Samsung’s very own 4bit QLC 64-layer 3D V-NAND flash memory. ADATA SU635 240GB 3D-NAND SATA 2. In a comparison of financial results, Micron Technology's DRAM financials were competitive with Samsung Electronics, but NAND financials underperformed. 3D NAND Bit Output 2D NAND 3D NAND Manufacturing Scale: Mountains of wafers being converted to 3D NAND 3D Industry bit cross-over in mid-2017 ©2016 Western Digital Corporation or its affiliates. for games) it's a goos choise but I'd not recommend a QLC drive as your primary one for the OS. 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Industry 2D NAND vs. DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) is just a type of RAM, and DRAM is the most common type in use today. Meanwhile, NAND's price per gigabyte declines faster, at an average of 50% per year. Each of these technologies competes against the others in many applications, even though they DRAM scaling (DRAM:NAND ratio) • Example: Enterprise SSD’s typically maintain DRAM:NAND ratio at 1:1000 • NAND Scaling • 3D NAND can scale in layers, x-y dimension • MLC TLC transition in 3D NAND with QLC intro expected in 2nd/3rd gen 3D • DRAM Scaling • Unclear if DDR4 will pervasively introduce 16Gb Micron’s 4th Gen 3D NAND uses up to 128 active layers and continues to use a CMOS under the array design approach. 4-8): Earlier this week the South Korean trade data was released for June 2019; full 2Q19: 1) DRAM – The combined value of South Korea DRAM exports + imports were -37% y/y vs +17% y/y and -29% y/y in 4Q18 and 1Q19. NAND flash continues to evolve and still has plenty of life, even as new memories evolve. . Performance –longer program (write) time Cells are more sensitive to the program voltage. The company consistently sets its Optane products' prices to fit between DRAM prices and NAND flash prices, and it typically sells them for about half the price of DRAM. The SU800 solid state drive lives up to its Ultimate name with 3D NAND Flash that provides higher storage density, efficiency, and reliability than traditional 2D NAND. This drive uses QLC memory vs the SU650 that uses TLC, and it has less than half the write endurance of the SU650. I recently came across this house brand SSD at Microcenter. Launching Intel® SSD D7-P5510 World’s first to market 144 -layer TLC Designed for cloud storage Delivering real world value across a wide range of usages U. Samsung’s new memory products, which are currently under development and scheduled for launch in the middle of next year, will incorporate the company’s technological strengths in both DRAM and NAND Flash manufacturing. 3D XPoint is expected to land at around $2. But it's not everything. The 3D technology can be stacked between eight and ten times the density of DRAM chips and will be significantly more durable than NAND Flash, Crooke said. No matter how you use your PC, SanDisk’s powerful 3D NAND and nCache 2. For reference only, I paid $74. Featuring the USB 3. ET Hosted By: Chi Lim Tan 3D NAND, or vertical NAND, with its higher density and lower cost per bit, has been a driving force in the popularity of solid state drives (SSD) thanks to the innovation and continued Either it's a budget drive with every cost-cutting measure imaginable (TLC, no DRAM), or a mid-range/high-end drive for people who care about performance (MLC, DRAM). 5TB vs 1. Samsung 3D NAND is relatively straightforward for a DRAM maker since it has stacked SiO2 and polysilicon layers like a stacked capacitor DRAM, and trenches like a trench cell DRAM. 5" SSD drives have DRAM cache. DRAM cell sizes are measured using an nF² formula where n is a constant, derived from the cell design, typically between 6 and 8, and F is the feature size of the process technology. There are two types of NAND, TLC, and QLC. ) update on CEO search. And of course the other significant benefit of this block architecture is that NAND is relatively cheap to manufacture. On the other hand, solid-state drives retain data even without power. 7 bn a year ago Planar NAND flash memory is nearing its practical scaling limits, posing significant challenges for the memory industry. Thus, with a 16nm feature size and n=8, then the area is 8 x (16 x 16) = 2,048 square nanometres. 3D V-NAND technology was first announced by Toshiba in 2007, and the first device, with 24 layers, was first commercialized by Samsung Electronics in 2013. Optane is Not as Dense as 3D NAND; Denser than DRAM Source: EETimes (Samsung 18nm 8Gb DRAM: 0. This inability to retain data is known as volatility. NAND (for NAND Gate) flash is a type of flash memory. 99after it was on sale, and I had a $5 off $30 or more coupon. The Adata drive features SLC caching which is a pretty good feature for a DRAM-less drive. This does, however, reflect a +6% q/q vs the -14% and -35% HDD vs SSD comparison. The 3D XPoint DIMMs will need controllers to perform wear Micron, in collaboration with its JV partner Intel, commenced early 3D NAND samples in Q1 2015 and expect volume commercial production in the second half of calendar year 2015. 6 | ©2014 Micron Technology, Inc. NAND flash actually wears out fairly quickly with heavy usage, but DRAM does not. • DRAM scaling has slowed with a possible long term 3D STT MRAM transition. Intel has slowly been establishing Optane as the SSD-DRAM gap-filler, from both sides. typically used for code store, and NAND, used for DRAM: Dynamic Random Access Memory 3D NAND Flash - Biased vs Unbiased TID. Toshiba NAND vs. 3D NAND, another familiar electrostatic construction, stores data as charges in the memory cell. The best use case is secondary storage, something like a steam library or media storage. A drawback to the NAND configuration is that when a cell is read, the sense amplifier sees a weaker signal than that on a NOR configuration since several transistors ar e in series. Review: ADATA Ultimate SU650 480GB 3D NAND SSD (ASU650SS-480GT-R) Posted on December 19, 2018 by lui_gough Solid state drive (SSD) pricing has taken a pummelling over the last few months with a global flash oversupply. A glowing example can be found with today’s mainstream technologies: NAND vs. The y-axis is the optimal read reference voltage, the numbers (point) are the ids of the voltage steps. 5" 7mm (0. DeBoer highlighted that Micron's leading-edge DRAM technology (1Ynm) has now transitioned from Boise R&D and into Micron's production fab in Hiroshima, Japan. 68TB capacity Available in Q4 2020. Western Digital 1TB WD Blue 3D NAND Internal PC SSD - SATA III 6 Gb/s, M. NAND is a type of gate that can be used to build a flash drive. There are indications that this decline may slow. 64L/96L transition Learn more here on micron. In total, there are 6 NAND packages, a DRAM package, and single controller. DRAM is much faster than NAND, so the SSD can access the map quickly to increase performance. 2 2280 & Corsair Vengeance LPX 16GB (2x8GB) DDR4 DRAM 3000MHz C15 Desktop Memory Kit - Black (CMK16GX4M2B3000C15) $197. The price of a gigabyte of DRAM declines (on average) 32% per year. Samsung 136-layer V-NAND 3-bit MLC. This supports higher efficiency by reducing the controller's and DRAM's workload. Today Intel is announcing updates to most of their SSD product lines. Shares of DRAM and NAND memory chip maker Micron Technology are up 38 cents, or 1. DRAM nodes are defined as the smallest half-pitch for the device (left image). DRAM currently costs a little north of $5 per gigabyte; NAND comes in around 25 cents per gig. Now it’s available to mainstream consumers in Of course, patterning limit is not the only obstacle to achieve more efficient DRAM and NAND products. How much faster is an SSD compared with HDD drives and is it worth the price? A solid state drive or SSD can speed up the performance of a computer significantly, often more than what a faster processor (CPU) or RAM can. It supposed to get around 500s- as i have shown you that the speed's restricted by SATA port. Western Digital WDC 1/24/19 5:30 PM 844-647-5494 661-378-9454 75559847 Points of focus include: 1. NAND flash memory contains an integrated circuit that uses NAND gates to store data in memory cells. DRAM prices have been high for quite some time now, due to a general increased demand over a slowly improving supply capability from manufacturers. Sophisticated engineering has made possible bit cells that can hold more than one bit of data and a 3D structure for dedicated flash chips. The x-axis is the P/E cycles. 6%, at $24. While it does offer persistency, it is usually a more expensive system as you need just as much NAND storage as your DRAM module plus the addition of the battery backup sub-system. It relies on electric circuits to store data, but it does not require power to retain data, which is also one of the reasons why SSDs mostly use NAND flash as their storage media rather than DRAM (another reason is that NAND flash is cheaper than DRAM). Of late, a The Ultra Plus would probably have been phased out completely were it not for its continued success within budget space. Therefore, they understand the whole picture for people who are not familiar with bottlenecks in the working process. 64L/96L transition* >2x improved power efficiency† >2x better write times† 33% higher data transfer rate† Dual stack *Cash cost per Gb vs. But we’re just now getting “proofs of existence” and lower-level details on how you actually build such a beast. This is truly amazing when we consider the first NAND-based USB drives that came to market in 2000 measured density in megabytes (MB). These are all 3D nand and performance is very close with minor edge to Crucial in certain area. This also comes with power loss protection, making it a good PC disk. DRAM, short for Dynamic random-access memory, features a read-and-write speed faster than NAND flash chip. It is used in some of the best SSDs in the market today. In the case of Samsung’s latest 48-layer V-NAND, each cell utilizes a 3D Charge Trap Flash (CTF) structure, with cell arrays stacked vertically to form a 48-storied construction that is electrically connected through approximately 1. 1646 kB - Last modifications: 7/08/2020. “Some 70 percent of total industry flash is 3D NAND, with the remainder Samsung started producing 24-layer NAND chips under its brand name 3D V-NAND in the third quarter of 2013. While resistive RAM's chances of crowding out NAND flash anytime soon are slim, the coming RAM wars mean mobile users are likely to have hundreds of gigabytes, or even a terabyte, of storage at Wow, it seems something is bad about the Sandisk's new 64 layer 3D (BiCS3) NAND chips. 1Xnm DRAM 3D NAND 3D X-point September 21, 2017. 2D/Planar NAND The difference is just what it sounds like — 2D NAND is a single level of memory cells, while 3D NAND is multiple levels. 1 bn; Net cash – $1. Further Reading: 3D XPoint is a non-volatile memory technology jointly developed by Intel and Micron Technology in July 2015. Charge Trap or 3D NAND Electron Scaling 2012 2010 2011 100 2008 2009 2007 20061000 2004 10 10000 Write Bandwidth, Write Latency vs. cost down - GM% stability, 2. Stand alone memory market revenue forecast. The Ultra II is the first Sandisk drive to utilize cheaper (and slower) TLC NAND. 2D/planar – two-dimensional NAND. Intel, Micron Jointly Announce QLC NAND FLASH, 96-Layer 3D Development In tandem with Micron's launch of their new enterprise QLC SSDs, there is a 3D XPoint can be used in DIMMs because of a) byte addressing, b) 1000x more write endurance than NAND flash, and c) 1000x faster I/Os. The NAND has been provided by Micron in a 3D TLC configuration with 64 layers. Moore’s Law has fundamentally changed the data center. Delivering half the speed of a standard DDR4 DRAM chip The only single-stack 3D memory die with a 100+ layer design. If 3D XPoint has 1,000 times more bandwidth than NAND, then we're probably back into fantastical-PR-claim territory. Alternatively, 3D DRAM (like the HMC) is volatile memory, which only temporarily stores information while the power is on. Though, MX300 is expensive than SanDisk SSD PLUS which uses MLC planar NAND at 19nm node. Here, the Blue 3D NAND performed admirably, producing a read speed of 400. With increasing processing time for 3D-NAND, major investments are required in new cleanroom space to maintain stable wafer output during Finally, with its exposure to both NAND flash and DRAM, along with the potential long-term upside of 3D Xpoint, Micron is more diversified. Prior Quarter as Undersupply Continues to Sway the Market, Says TrendForce. The new type of 3D NAND memory changes floating gate technology (that has been 3. We are talking about Samsung, SK Hynix and Micron, the 3 main manufacturers of RAM, which sell their memory to Corsair, G. In order to simply show the difference in performance with HNB turned on, let’s assume that the HMB size which the SSD can get from the Host is fixed at 128MB. Document. Clearly, 3D NAND wearout follows a linear trend rather than a power law trend. 98 Get the deal In terms of cost, the new technology will fall somewhere between NAND flash and DRAM in terms of cost-per-gigabyte. TLC is also known as MLC-3, 3-bit MLC, and X3. Planar NAND Scaling Planar NAND scaling •Planar can be scaled below 16nm, but performance and cost are not competitive with 3D NAND •Micron focused 100% on 3D NAND after 16nm 3D NAND scaling •3D NAND cost/capacity improvement over planar expands with subsequent nodes •3D NAND cell architecture enables significant The 860 Evo is based on a refinement of Samsung’s consumer grade TLC V-NAND, this time featuring 256Gb and 512 Gb 64 layer V-NAND and it also features a new "MJX" controller. 5” SATA III (6GB/S) 128GB Solid-State Drive Silicon Power 128GB SSD 3D NAND A55 SLC Cache Performance Boost SATA III 2. m. Non-volatile NAND flash memory One of the benefits of NAND flash is its non-volatile storage of data. TLC 3D NAND has demonstrated more than 10,000 program/erase cycles with robustness suitable for many applications. This flash memory technology is non-volatile chip-based storage, and unlike DRAM does not require a persistent power source. The decisions have consequences, especially when the decision-makers represent 95% of the RAM market. ) NAND pricing has been affected as well, with newer technologies such as 3D NAND not having a relevant impact on end user pricing as was expected, since tight supply and growing demand By way of comparison, DRAM latency is currently about 1,000 times faster than NAND. Similarly to the Extreme Pro, the Ultra II utilizes an nCache which operates a portion of the NAND in simulated SLC mode. 2 2280, 3D NAND, Up to 2,400 MB/s - WDS100T2B0C While DRAM is still advancing planar (horizontal) scaling to increase capacity, NAND has achieved density scaling by going vertical as in 3D NAND. “3D” DRAM NAND technology has taken a hard turn away from planar design and instead now uses strings of bit cells that are formed vertically, perpendicular to the surface of the silicon wafer, rather than laying the strings out along the surface. DRAM. As for 3D XPoint, it is slower than DRAM on writes and Baxter says it has asymmetric read and write time latencies – something that no one has talked about as far as we know but which also is an issue with NAND flash. Like previous 2D planar NAND, Micron 3D TLC NAND is a joint development between Intel In fiscal 2019, we expect that DRAM profitability will remain strong as the market continues to benefit from long-term structural growth drivers and from structurally slowing supply growth. NAND Flash is a type of non-volatile storage technology. Over the past year, the R&D team has also successfully completed the development process in Boise for 64-layer 3D NAND, and moved the technology from initial development in Boise all the Flash SSDs use NAND, and RAM SSDs use DRAM. g. With NAND TLC flash (triple-level cell flash), the memory stores three bits of data per cell. all use DRAM. 0 x4 Internal Solid State Drive (1TB) Western Digital 1TB WD Blue SN550 NVMe Internal SSD - Gen3 x4 PCIe 8Gb/s, M. If there was going to be any place where 3D XPoint might be used, it would be with entry-level ARM processors such as a Raspberry Pi, and used in low-cost consumer storage and networking. Powered by a Phison E13T controller and paired with Micron 96L 3D TLC NAND we check blocks. 5″ drive, with a thickness of only 7 mm. Intel "Five-bit-per-cell technology would further increase density and reduce The major NAND Flash makers are Samsung, Kioxia, WDC, Micron, Intel, and SK Hynix. Betamax vs VHS, Nintendo vs Playstation, HD DVD vs Blu Ray, Nokia Vs Apple, and now DRAM vs NAND? I've not done the bench test yet. 3D XPoint memory greatly surpasses the current mainstream products in efficiency and endurance Revenue was more or less consistent through Q1 ’19, despite a steady drop in NAND flash prices over the years, due to increasing sales volumes, driven by high-value SSD and 3D NAND. s. And it could be out as soon as next year. 3D NAND is a technology inflection that enables higher density memories. Older type of NAND that is moving out of production except for budget-oriented drives. 5 Gb/mm 2 to 5. TLC has eight charges inside the cell. DRAM vs. At last month’s IEDM, I had a conversation with Micron’s Chuck Dennison. ) hyperscale / cloud demand and positioning in high-capacity / Western Digital 1TB WD Blue 3D NAND Internal PC SSD - SATA III 6 Gb/s, M. NAND vs NOR Flash Memory. NAND has been on a steeper price decline than DRAM for its entire existence. Samsung Pablo Controller. Large Block NAND Devices This technical note describes the significant performance increases that large-block NAND Flash devices offer over their small-block NAND Flash counterparts for READ, PROGRAM, and ERASE operations. This NAND is 768Gb in density and each NAND package is 96GiB in capacity. The memory cells are written through Memory Process Webinar: 3D NAND Word Line Pad (WLP) Wednesday June 24, 2020 / 2:00 p. 4% vs. 3D DRAM is targeted to data servers and mobile devices. 2 2280 PCIe NVMe 3. The main feature of this drive is its 3D NAND, of which, comes from Micron. 3D – three-dimensional NAND. • Bit density is the number of gigabits of memory on the die divided by the die size. However, due to cost considerations, many TLC-based SSDs are DRAM-less, resorting to “direct TLC write. Servers can have more total memory capacity with Optane (4. 3x improvement in density vs. Figures 10-9 and 10-10 describe the NAND ar chitectur e from 3D NAND&DRAM timeline. The former was bang in the middle of Samsung and Crucial's efforts, while its write speed was just 6% slower than the MX500 and 3% slower than the 860 Evo. Vertical NAND (V-NAND) Advanced NAND flash technology at smaller design nodes started to experience issues with performance and durability, including data crosstalk. Turning to NAND, we have seen an acceleration in supply growth in calendar 2018, driven by the ramp of highly efficient 64-layer 3D NAND across the industry. 40 per gig for large volume purchases, according to When power is removed all data in DRAM is instantly wiped out. Thus, read disturb errors are similar in 3D NAND flash memory. There are many other technical challenges for DRAM cell, storage capacitance, isolation, leakage, reliability, floating gate vs. We're going to seriously need that, both in the consumer and enterprise spaces. Types of NAND Flash For 1x-nm planar NAND, tPROG increased by over 25 percent going from MLC to TLC. The overall market size and demand for NAND chip-level products is expected to grow by about 10 percent annually, reaching a market size of more than $40 billion in 2017. NOR Flash Memory Technology Overview Page 3 NOR vs. The following is the overall performance trend through a simple computational model (4-channel DRAM-less SSD controller + transmission interface: PCIe Gen3 2-lane + 3D NAND Flash). NVMe is a communication protocol to speak to a storage device. In theory, the highest density NAND will be at least twice the density of NOR, for the same process technology and chip size. 5mm adapter) Internal SSD CT500MX500SSD1. Intel and Micron claim 3D XP “is not significantly impacted by the number of write cycles it can endure. FREE US Delivery, guaranteed 100% compatibility when ordering using our online tools. • Multiple points for the same company in the same year represent MLC/TLC/QLC/PLC/HLC. The trend of NAND Flash •The issues of increasing 2D NAND flash density (smaller cells) Reliability - various serious disturbances Program (write) disturbances, read disturbances, and retention errors. Featuring advanced SATA III 6Gbps interface and implementing 3D NAND flash, it provides higher performance and greater stability and durability than HDDs. Some others such as the Crucial MX series at this price point have DRAM cache. SRAM. 5 inch 7mm (with 9. The differences in planar vs. Same die size Same process geometry Similar complexity Twice as many bits . Startup Crossbar emerged from stealth mode Monday to announce its version of RRAM (resistive random-access memory), a new type of memory that could be a successor to flash storage and DRAM. 3D V-NAND (vertical NAND) technology stacks NAND flash memory cells vertically within a chip using 3D charge trap flash (CTP) technology. The dream of stuffing your gaming PC with dozens of terabytes of super-fast flash memory and storage on the cheap is still a way away. It’s been only a few short months since Samsung's 850 Pro delivered the company’s long-lasting 32-bit 3D NAND to the high-end/corporate market. But the rate of read disturb errors are significantly reduced in today’s 3D NAND because it currently uses a larger manufacturing process technology [25, 23]. 5 mm drives, making it suitable for all 2. While that may be a disadvantage in the near term, as The WSJ is reporting Korean DRAM, NAND and SSD maker SK hynix could buy some all of Intel’s NAND business operation for around $10bn. It features intelligent SLC caching and a DRAM cache buffer to boost read/write performance even further. It’s available with three different capacities – 1 TB, 2TB and 4TB. In early 2016, we learned that Micron's second-gen 3D NAND would use a 768Gbit die. 2 2280 & Corsair Vengeance LPX 16GB (2x8GB) DDR4 DRAM 3000MHz C15 Desktop Memory Kit - Black (CMK16GX4M2B3000C15) $202. DDR-type memory loses data when there isn't any power, but NAND stores it even when the power goes out . SLC NAND vs. Yole Development said that NAND and DRAM sales were about $160 B in 2018, growing by 32% between 2016 and 2018. Advantages of DRAM and flash in a memory Though newer 3D NAND chips are available, and they’re faster and more efficient, we’re not seeing the drop in price and rapid boost in capacity that such big steps would suggest on their own. 1GB LPDDR4 (1TB), 512MB LPDDR4 (500GB, 250GB) N/A In this figure, I plot how 3D NAND wearout changes the optimal read reference voltage between the two higher voltage states. ” This would make it more durable than NAND flash, and less durable than DRAM. 3D NAND promises high memory cell density with reduced data corruption, but also brings processing challenges. The 850 Pro is the first SSD to deploy this method. Controller. The cost of this technology should end up falling somewhere between the cost of DRAM and NAND Flash. Direct TLC Write. The NAND Flash market remained in undersupply in the first quarter of 2017 as it had been in the preceding quarter, according to the latest report from DRAMeXchange, a division of TrendForce. We refer the reader to our prior work for a more detailed comparison between 3D NAND and planar NAND [4, 5, 6]. -Benchmarks provide you some scientific data. NAND flash is a non-volatile storage technology, that is, data can still be saved after power S. The ability to retain data after NAND vs. “Memory and storage are critical to the data economy, and the need for data center memory innovation has never been greater,” said Micron President and CEO Sanjay Mehrotra. 3D NAND means that the cells are physically in three dimensions instead of just one "2D" plane. This does not necessarily mean it's flash memory. 1401 kB - Last modifications: 7/08/2020. 5 inch 7mm (with 9. 5 nm 2) for Toshiba NAND products, while Intel Optane TM two cell stacked XPoint memory has 800 nm 2 (effectively 2F 2) (Figure 2). Figure 2A. Here, memory cells are added by going up instead of out to the side, where space on the wafer and inability to further shrink device features limit density. See what vendors, such as Intel and Micron, are offering to meet demand for 3D NAND technology. To be presented by Ted Wilcox at the 2019 NEPP Electronics Technology Workshop (ETW The transition to 3-D NAND Compared with DRAM, the overall prospects for NAND may initially look robust. Would be very interesting to see 2048Gb 96L 3D QLC from Intel. The same is true with DRAM, for reasons like cost, backwards compatibility, cost, availability, cost and cost. Samsung is the market share leader with almost a third of the global market. While QLC gives more storage for a cheaper price it has drawbacks in durability and write speed. FREE US Delivery, guaranteed 100% compatibility when ordering using our online tools. Desktops, laptops, smartphones, etc. In less than 20 years, the industry has seen tremendous advances in technology and now measures USB flash drives in TBs rather than MBs. DRAM-less question (DRAM is unlikely to affect TBW and would improve it if it did anything), but it is quite worrying. This item Inland Professional 1TB SSD 3D QLC NAND M. Outline NAND NAND DRAM. –TV’s, game console, removeable storage cards, automotive, smart speakers, other CE, Manufacturers could allocate more NAND to producing DRAM, but this, in turn, would result in an oversupply in that sector. 28") Internal Solid State Drive (SU128GBSS3A55S25AC) Intel and Micron say 3D XPoint memory is 1000 times faster than NAND, boasts 1000x the endurance of NAND, and offers 8-10 times the density of conventional memory. That’s actually a large range, as NAND tends to be priced just below a dollar per It also lowers the cost per byte compared to 2D NAND. To my amazement, they were unable to tell me if the WD Blue 3D NAND 2. 5" SATA 6Gb/s SSD, which signals its expansion into 3D QLC NAND Flash storage. The difference compared with 2D NAND flash memories - alongside the three-dimensional memory structure - is that 3D XPoint memories do not use transistors. A nice side benefit would be that this type of high capacity 3D QLC die would be a good fit for Maxio technology MAS0902 dram-less SATA controller (which unlike the dram-less Phison S11 controller has a much higher capacity( 2TB (or 4TB) for MAS0902 vs. With 3D NAND Flash, it provides higher storage capacity, efficiency, and reliability than 2D NAND. The ADATA Ultimate SU750 solid-state drive is for you. On one of the sides, you will find the Silicon Motion SM2258 4-channel controller and a DRAM chip next to it which basically provides the SSD controller with RAM. The 3D-NAND manufacturing equipment market will keep growing, propelled by robust long-term NAND-bit demand and ever-increasing manufacturing complexity. Yet NAND prices were higher than DRAM’s until 2004! NAND wafer production reached 30% that of DRAM . 3D NAND flash devices could utilise MLC, TLC or QLC designs. We have seen 90+ layers from multiple vendors in the market, and no-one is denying that 3D NAND Layering. This enables faster performance than SSDs using 2D Flash. Intel is the sixth and smallest NAND maker in terms of revenue market share, having 11 per cent of the market, behind leader Samsung with 31 per cent The SU800 solid state drive lives up to its Ultimate name with 3D NAND Flash that provides higher storage density, efficiency, and reliability than traditional 2D NAND. The oversupply that began in the second half of 2018 led to significant price Memory (DRAM) vs Storage (Flash) vs 'Storage-Class' Memory (SCM) Now, 3D NAND is a proven technology. Block Erase Time (tBERS) is also reduced to approximately 70% of 1x-nm planar MLC NAND in 3D TLC NAND. Each year, the tech giant added more layers, reaching 64 layers by the end of 2016. Instead of the DRAM cache, the SU760 has a separate cache made up of the fast SLC NAND which alleviates some of the performance loss due to the DRAM cache. For engineers and OEMs, keeping up with the advances and determining what fits best in their applications is an ongoing process. The statistic shows the size of the market for 2D and 3D NAND flash memory worldwide, from 2015 to 2025. The company pulled that goal back in favor of a more traditional 256Gbit capacity that vendors can use to Transcend's 3D NAND USB Flash Drives are built utilizing state-of-the-art 3D NAND technology, which allows 96 layers of 3D NAND flash chips to be vertically stacked. NAND Cell Wear Leveling. The company builds many different types of memory chips and semiconductors for a wide range of applications, including NAND flash for storage, DRAM for primary system memory, and 3D XPoint, a type Storage densities eight to ten times higher than with DRAM are possible and at lower costs. 1 Gen 1 interface, large capacities, and a compact form factor for wide application potential, the USB flash drive is ideal for embedded applications in the True, NAND is extremely slow compared to DRAM, but emerging technologies like MIT’s BlueCache server can narrow the gap by getting rid of the File Translation Layer (FTL) and providing direct access to the memory. Samsung Elpis Controller. The result is higher density and higher performance using a smaller footprint and a breakthrough in overcoming the density limits of conventional planar NAND. TN-29-07: Small Block vs. com †versus Micron’s high volume, floating-gate 96-Layer 3D NAND Whitepaper: 3D NAND Flash Processing Coventor’s powerful SEMulator3D semiconductor process modeling platform offers a wide range of technology development capabilities for the development of cutting edge 3D NAND Flash Technology. It built faster-than-NAND Optane SSDs with XPoint, and faster still but slower-than DRAM Optane Persistent Memory (PMem or DIMMs). Not very many people can tell the difference between a 3D NAND manufacturing plant and a planar NAND plant even if they’re right in the middle of Intel Announces New Wave of Optane and 3D NAND SSDs. However, once powered off, DRAM will lose data. NAND cells are not designed to last forever. -Replaceability: When NAND flash memory wears out, you can replace the chip with a compatible component. “Unlike NAND, which has six competitors increasing capacity, only Samsung, Hynix, and Micron are producing DRAM. Of course with 3D NAND we'll probably see both combinations, but TLC on 3D NAND isn't so bad (see the 850 Evo). NOR and NAND configurations for the same feature size. Memory CAPEX is US$15-16 Bn level, allocation favor on NAND. 84TB, 7. NAND flash production is rapidly shifting from planar to 3-D (vertical string) DRAM continues to scale (planar) while looking for a path to higher performance (3-D packaging) Emerging memories are slowlyemerging 3 Publication trends by memory type MRAM trending up while PCM/PRAM is down 3D NAND Flash – Higher Capacities, More Durable Implementing 3D NAND Flash, the SU760 features higher storage capacities ranging from 256GB to 1TB, improved efficiency, and better reliability. However, Samsung’s second-generation 3D TLC NAND decreases tPROG by 50% compared to planar TLC NAND, and making it actually faster than planar MLC. That lets it perform much more like DRAM in some situations, especially with high volumes of small files, such as online transaction The transition from 2D NAND to 3D enables continued bit density scaling by using the third dimension, and bit growth density has risen from approximately 0. Plentiful processing power has driven the success of technologies like high performance computing, highly scaled database environments and of course virtualization and cloud computing. 3D NAND is expected to take of in the SSD Flash memory market. 3D NAND technology is poised to make a dramatic impact by keeping flash storage solutions aligned with Moore’s Law, the trajectory for continued performance gains and cost savings, driving more widespread use of flash storage. 3x improvement in density vs. SLC NAND Accelerate your PC for faster boot-up and blazing-fast gaming and graphics when you upgrade to a SanDisk Ultra® 3D SSD. I was hoping this line of Western Digital drives have it. Korea DRAM & NAND Exports + Imports (see pgs. 0 Gb/mm 2 since 2010. 3D-NAND process flows have shifted capex focus from lithography to deposition and etching: substantial fab retooling is required to convert existing planar fabs to 3D. For a little bit more money, the SU800 has DRAM and is a suitable OS drive. •3D NAND can highly mitigate those issues. NVDIMMs typically integrate non-volatile NAND flash with DRAM and a dedicated backup power on a single memory subsystem. Just think of all the devices that depend on NAND – from computers to mobile phones, wearables, automotive applications, healthcare devices, surveillance and more. 189 Gb/mm2) Introduction tor 3D NAND and Emerging NVM Technologies There are a total of sixteen NAND flash memories, with eight on each side of the PCB which are produced by Micron and are built on a 16nm 3D NAND process. 5TB) and so run memory-bound applications faster. With the problem that all the semiconductor fabs seem to be having with any sub 14nm process will the diversion of development money to 3D Nand and Dram which allow higher capacities on older Posts about 3D NAND written by George Crump. It is their latest 3D TLC, similar to that of the MX300’s. Document. Their products based on 3D NAND are being updated to use Intel's 144 When it comes to the effective unit cell size per 1 bit, NAND flash devices have been scaled down from 2D NAND (320 nm 2) to 48L 3D NAND (145. SLC Cache vs. Static random-access memory is a type of semiconductor memory that uses bistable latching circuitry to store each bit. Toshiba invented a 3D NAND which has been adopted and refined by all flash makers. This sale is still current as of this post. The three are effectively an oligopoly. 3D Xpoint chips are included in Intel’s Optane chipsets that are being marketed for high-end enterprise data-processing jobs, such as fintech I called customer support for Western Digital. With this larger cell size, the number of electrons per bit of data in TLC 3D NAND is the same or better than the latest nodes of MLC 2D NAND, so the endurance and data retention is roughly equivalent. This seems to be data from a single drive, hopefully not all WD Blue 3D drives are quit Major Gap Between DRAM and NAND in the Market. Unlike DRAM, their cells will wear out over time as the write cycles are more taxing than read cycles. The 250 GB version can reach sequential write speeds of up to 520 MB/s, dropping to 300 MB/s once the SLC cache is exhausted (the 250 GB version has a 12 GB SLC write General Specifications. - DRAM cache should be irrelevant on SATA SSD- The limitation of the port-restricted by SATA max speed at 600mb/s. 5mm adapter) Internal SSD CT250MX500SSD1. 89, as the Street digests what they heard from the company during the analyst day presentation on Buy Crucial MX500 250GB 3D NAND SATA 2. 3D NAND on a Trajectory for the Data-Centric Future NAND technology has enabled the revolution of IoT and mobile, and it is a technology that’s on an amazing trajectory. The third dimension offers more space between cells, reducing cell-to-cell interference. Two-dimensional, or planar, NAND is still the more cost traditional DRAM is great for in-memory processing of data at high speeds, but it’s expensive and limited in capacity and scalability. Figure 2B. Non-volatile simply means that NAND, unlike DRAM (or system memory), does not require power to retain data. 7MB/s and a write speed of 346. Most flash memory storage is NAND. standard DRAM, but similar number of critical litho steps!!! Negligible prior work in monolithic 3D DRAM with shared litho steps, poly Si 3D doesn’t work for DRAM (unlike NAND flash) due to leakage With multi-layered 3D NAND Flash, the Ultimate SU800 provides higher storage density, efficiency, and reliability than traditional 2D NAND Flash drives. 3D NAND is evolutionary, not revolutionary. Should cost half as much . From this example, it can be seen that tier-to-tier alignment plays a critical role in creating a robust multi-tier 3D NAND memory cell. 3. charge trapped flash, double patterning, immersion lithography, so on and so forth. 3D Xpoint is an interesting technology because it offers many of the benefits of both DRAM and NAND flash memory. Unlike DRAM memory which must be powered continuously to retain data, NAND memory retains data even when the power is off – making it ideal as storage for portable devices. Newer type of NAND with a varying amount of layers. standard DRAM, but similar number of critical litho steps!!! Negligible prior work in Monolithic 3D DRAM with shared litho steps, poly Si 3D doesn’t work for DRAM (unlike NAND flash) due to leakage The Necessary 3D NAND Revolution 2D NAND, the work horse of the solid state storage industry, had scaled effectively for almost 10 generations until the music stopped. Just based on that, it sounds like NAND is much better. The 665p is built off of Intel’s 96-layer NAND, the first QLC drive to hit the market in 96-layers. Our roadmap for 3D NAND technology development is strong, and we intend to bring highly competitive products to market based on our industry-leading 3D NAND technology. Skill, ADATA, Team Force as well as Kingston to name a few. ” Availability? The first generation of 3D NAND, 24-layers deep, comes on heels of sub-20nm node 2D NAND, but because it is more dense, 3D NAND will reduce the cost per bit to manufacture memory by about 30%, Lee To help the industry gain some insights into what’s ahead, Semiconductor Engineering examined the markets for DRAM, 3D NAND, and next-generation memory. DRAM . Pricing of DRAM has been increasing (to the tune that if I wanted to double my memory capacity, I would have to pay double of what I paid a mere 11 months ago. 8 billion channel ~1. Hard-disk Like its predecessor the Intel 660p, the 665p leverages QLC (quad-level cell) 3D NAND to lower the price of the SSD while only taking a moderate performance hit. • 3D NAND is positioned to scale into the 2020s with terabit memories on the horizon. And DRAM lasts 1000 times longer. This model is different than the 120/240gb variant in that it uses TLC ram. A cost analysis that Objective Analysis did a year or more ago estimates that the cost per GB to manufacture a 32-layer 3D NAND chip should (ideally) be a little more than half the price of a 16nm planar NAND chip, which some people call “2D” NAND. You’ll notice that applications load faster and files move quicker—plus you’ll get longer battery life and much cooler, quieter computing2. It’s not in their interest to fight with each other over prices when they could be maximizing profits instead. 3D NAND was invented to drive costs out of NAND after planar flash reached its scaling limit. 3D-NAND Fabrication vs. Try our corporate solution for free! (212) 419-8286 Global market for DRAM 2015-2025; Additionally, technologies such as 2-bit per cell MLC NAND, 3-bit per cell MLC and the use of vertically stacked NAND, or 3D NAND, has greatly improved storage capacity as well. Micron’s Crucial MX300 which uses 32-layer TLC 3D NAND is about 30% cheaper than Micron’s Crucial MX200 which uses MLC planar NAND at 16nm node. When it comes to DRAM, however, Kang expects prices to slowly climb. Next year is looking to be an interesting time for NAND and DRAM production. All other things equal, 3D is better than 2D in terms of write endurance speeds and power consumption. 3d nand vs dram